Guiding the future of partnerships between the police and the prison system. As more partnerships develop, their potential to serve the criminal justice system and communities. As stated above, the criminal justice system is not limited to one level of government and is comprised of local, state, and federal governments. Partner agencies at these levels can work together or separately.
In the above example of legalizing marijuana, the federal government hasn't legalized recreational or medical marijuana, but some states have; states don't agree with federal law, but federal law basically has the last word. If the federal government wanted to punish states for selling marijuana, it certainly could, since it's still a Schedule I drug. During an investigation, police officers may need to obtain a search warrant. The Fourth Amendment to the Constitution requires police officers to have probable cause before searching a person's house, clothing, car, or other property, with some exceptions that will be discussed later.
To ensure due process, records usually require a search warrant, issued by a “neutral and independent judge.” Arrests also require probable cause and often occur after the police have obtained an arrest warrant from a judge. Depending on the specific facts of the case, the first step may be an arrest. As stated above, if a person is caught committing a crime, they will first arrest and investigate. The police are on hold The next phase of the criminal justice system are the courts.
Courts can be comprised of prosecutors, defense attorneys, judges, and a reasonable jury of peers. The primary function of the courts is to determine if an offender should be charged with a crime and, if so, what charges should exist. The officers will send the information to district attorneys for review, and the district attorney will determine what charges are filed against the offender, also known as the defendant. In the above scenario, if the prosecution has determined that there is sufficient evidence to charge the person with stealing from the downtown business, charges will be filed and the suspect will be charged with a specific crime.
The accused will be informed of the theft of all the rights granted to him by the Constitution and that he has the right to a defense lawyer. There are private defense lawyers and public defenders who are appointed if a person is indigent or cannot afford an attorney. The accused, or the accused, will plead guilty or not guilty and a trial date will be set. If a defendant is convicted, then that defendant is found guilty.
Let's imagine that surveillance cameras caught the thief in the center of the city and that the fingerprints left matched those of the aggressor; this would increase the chances of a conviction being handed down. This phase is known as award. If found guilty, the court is responsible for passing the sentence. In the vast majority of criminal cases, the judge decides the sentencing hearing, but in some cases, the jury determines the outcome.
While this was a brief overview, it's essential to know that courts indict defendants, hold a preliminary hearing, an appearance, possible plea agreements, a sentence, and a sentence. Law enforcement agencies do not determine guilt or innocence, impose punishments, or implement punishment.