There are several explanations for which anticipatory benefits are observed, and the most popular one is that the publicity that occurs in anticipation of the crime prevention initiative has a deterrent effect on criminal activity (Bowers %26 Johnson, 2003; Farrell et al. A criminal justice system is vital to ensure that laws are enforced, that the public is safe and that rights are protected. Two of the studies worked with criminal justice populations (BRIGHT 1) and the remaining four studies worked with vulnerable populations (RETAIN, STRIDE 1 and 2, PACTO). The studies showed low rates of missing observations in most criminal activities and measures of imprisonment (0 to 8%).
The intersections between substance use, HIV, and criminal justice participation also highlight significant health disparities in the United States. Crime-related measures were not part of a central area of STTR studies focusing on vulnerable populations, but many of these studies chose to include questions about arrests, charges, and other contacts with the criminal justice system. CEAs can be framed from the perspective of the health sector, the perspective of a specific payer or the broader social perspective, which incorporates costs outside the health sector, such as costs for patients and their families, participation in criminal justice and the use of social services. Crime-related measures included contacts with the criminal justice system (arrests, charges, convictions, imprisonment) and criminal offences.
The criminogenic nature of prison, its tendency to provoke or reinforce criminal behavior, can lead to an increase in crime. As mentioned above, tangible costs often include the most obvious costs of crime, such as criminal justice costs, medical expenses, lost wages, and victim assistance programs. The studies included people with substance use disorder who were HIV-positive or at risk of contracting it and were divided into two groups: studies focusing on criminal justice populations and studies focusing on vulnerable populations. An additional consideration is that, while the reference costs of criminal activity can serve as an important comparator or predictor of post-intervention costs, to estimate the reduction in crime costs during a period of intervention (attributable to the intervention), reference and monitoring data are required, which should represent equal withdrawal times.
These crimes are frequently reported, but without knowing if a rape resulted in a new arrest or if an act of prostitution or sale of illicit drugs resulted in an arrest, it is impossible to accurately calculate the criminal justice system costs attributable to these types of crimes. Additional studies are needed to improve the estimation of criminal costs related to a wider range of crimes and to identify sources of administrative data that can be used to validate self-reported criminal activities and criminal justice contacts.